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 بحث حول النمل أمريكا الشمالية للجنس DOLICHO - DERUS بالإنجليزية

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ذكر
الحمل التِنِّين
عدد المساهمات : 1459
تاريخ الميلاد : 16/04/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 20/03/2010
العمر : 28
المزاج المزاج : رايق

مُساهمةموضوع: بحث حول النمل أمريكا الشمالية للجنس DOLICHO - DERUS بالإنجليزية   الثلاثاء نوفمبر 23, 2010 11:36 am

Proofread complete 10-x-02
(3 HH,3 DD; EE, 2 GG

THE NORTH AMERICAN ANTSOF THE GENUS DOLICHODERUS


Ants of the genus Dolichoderus are common in the New World, and form one of the most complex and confusinggroups of ants. There are several partial revisions of the genus in the New World. Mann (1916) and Kempf (1969) provided keys to Dolichoderus sensu stricto. Wheeler(1905a) and Creighton (1950) revised the species in United States, Kempf (1959a, 1972a)provided revisions of the species of Monacis.Lattke (1986) and Harada (1986) provided updated versions of Kempf's keys anddescribed new species. Wilson(1985a) described three fossil species. Mackay (1993) revised the New World species and provided keys.
It is an especially difficult group of ants as there is muchvariability within species, specifically with regard to size, sculpture, andcolor. This has resulted in the recognition of numerous subspecies andvarieties. The nanitic workers of incipient masts have been especiallytroublesome, as these are often so different from “normal” workers that theycan be easily differentiated. They are not only smaller, but are usually moreroughly sculptured and have rounder heads, which is especially striking inspecies where the larger workers have oblong or cordate shaped heads
Fortunately speciescomplexes are relatively well defined (at least for the extant species) andsmall enough that species identification is usually possible.

The following abbreviations are used (all measurements inmm.):
HL Head length, anterior of margin of clypeus to posteriorborder.
HW Head width, maximum excluding eyes. (Measured immediatelyposterior to eyes in males.)
EL Eye length, maximum dimension.
SL Scape length, excluding basal condyle.
WL Weber's length, anterior border of pronotum to posteriorborder of lobe of metapleural gland.
ML Total length of mesonotum.
MW Total width of mesonotum.
PW Maximum width of petiole.
PL Maximum length of petiolar node (not recorded for specieswhere node is poorly defined).
CI Cephalic Index, HW/HL X 100
OI Ocular index, EL/HL X 100.
SI Scape index, SL/HL X 100.
MI Mesonotal index, ML/MW X 100.
wool
DOLICHODERUS LUND

Formica (in part)Linnaeus, 1758:581a
Dolichoderus Lund,1831:130; Forel, 1878:386, 1911:282; Emery, 1865: 9, 58-59, 1886:434-436,1894:227-230, 234-239, 1912:7-9; Mann, 1916:460-461; Wheeler, 1921a:89-103;Smith, 1947:593-594; Brown, 1950:249; Wheeler and Wheeler,and 1951:169-178,1966:726-728; Kusnezov, 1959:41-42, 50; Kempf, 1969:289, 292; Smith,1979:1415-1417; Johnson, 1989:1-9;
Hypoclinea Mayr,1855:377, 1862:704-705, 1870a:953-959; Emery, 1865:9; Brown, 1950:249; Eisner,1957:453-454; (Provisionally synonymized by Forel, 1878:386; Brown, 1973:182;Wheeler and Wheeler, 1985:258)
Monacis Roger,1862a:233-234; Brown, 1950:249; Kempf, 1959a:225-232, 1972a:253; Wilson,1985a:18-19; Harada, 1986:602-604; (Provisionally synonymized by Brown,1973:181; Snelling, 1981:401; Wheeler and Wheeler, 1985:258).to the

Type species: Formicaattelaboides Fabricius, 1775 (by monotypy).
Diagnosis of the agenus Dolichoderus.
Workerin: Head oftenstrongly sculptured with foveolae, rarely punctate or with rugae only, orsmooth; maxillary palps with six segments (Fig. ), labial palps with foursegments (Fig. ); mandible with well defined basal and masticatory borders,well defined teeth on both borders in addition to small denticles on basalborder (Fig. ), which may give it a serrate appearance (Fig. ); clypeus oftenwith medial emargination (Fig. ); mesosoma often elongate (Fig. ); pronotumsometimes with foveolate punctures, but may be rugose or punctate, or evensmooth and shining; spines often present on mesosoma, especially on thepropodeum (Figs. ), occasionally on the pronotum and/or mesonotum (Fig. );lower mesopleural border with a tooth (Fig. xx) or bump (Fig. xx); basidorsaltubercle often developed on high coxa (Fig. xx); petiole usually with wellformed node, often with apical spine or teeth; dorsum of gaster usuallypunctate with both erect hairs and appressed pubescence. Scape (Fig. ) andtibiae often with numerous long erect or suberect hairs. Cuticle hard andmostly sculptured. New World species aretypically medium sized, active, conspicuous ants in tropical rain forests.
There is considerablevariation in workers. Spines and teeth may be present on the pronotum,mesonotum or propodeum, but are absent in most species. The propodeum usuallyprojects posteriorly over the petiole (Fig. ), at least in the Nearctic and Old World species.
Female. Similar toworker, but larger and with 3 well developed ocelli, and mesosoma modified forflight. Mandible with teeth on basal and masticatory border, those on masticatoryborder directed posteriorly; maxillary palps with six subequal segments; labialpalps with 4 subequal segments (in D.rugosus apical segment longer than others); spine or tubercle on lowermesopleural margin usually not as well developed as in worker; propodeal spinesoften well developed; basidorsal tubercle present on posterior coxa in manyspecies. Long, erect pointed hairs present on most of body surface of mostspecies (including scapes and tibiae). Body often with appressed pubescence.Sculpture often coarse, with foveolate punctures on head and much of mesosoma,remainder of mesosoma with rugae, sculpture of gaster variable, but is at leastpartially, densely and evenly punctate. Wing is of the basic ant form, thefirst and second cubital cells and a discoidal cell are present (Fig. ). Thediscoidal cell is usually square, but is pentagonally shaped in some species.It is occasionally subdivided into two cells (Fig. ), but this is not animportant character as the cell of one wing of a specimens may be dividedwhereas the other is not.
Male. Similar toworker in many aspects; mandible with teeth on masticatory and basal borders,but most are small, giving borders a serrated appearance (Fig. ), usually onlyapical tooth and possibly a few others near apex developed; Maxillary palp sixsegmented, at least last 4 subequal in length, long, extending at least toforamen magnum in most species; labial palps with 4 segments; scape usuallyshorter than second segment of funiculus (Fig. ), antenna with 13 segments; 3ocelli large and well developed (Fig. ); eyes very large, protruding pastlateral margins of head (Fig. ); posterior border convex (frontal view); lowermesopleural spine poorly developed or absent; propodeum without spines or withrelatively poorly developed spines (Fig. ). Wings similar to those of female,genitalia variable (Figs. ), stipites rudimentary or absent, volsella very welldeveloped, with a ventrally projecting digitus; aedeagus often with welldeveloped digitus, directed ventrally or recurved anteriorly: subgenital plateusually small (Fig. xx) or absent, but may be well developed and consist of twolong, knobbed processes (Fig. ). Males are relatively large (up to 1 cm. in total length),moderately hairy, with a few erect hairs on all surfaces, those on scapes andtibiae few in number (0 - 10), usually short, fine and suberect.
The males do not appearto separate easily among the complexes and are unknown in many species. Fourdistinct groups are recognizable. The first consists of those species in Dolichoderus in the strict sense (attelaboides, decollatus, imitator, and rugosus complexes), which have enlarged, bilobed subgenital plates(Fig. ). Group two includes most species previously recognized as members ofthe Neotropical Hypoclinea in thestrict sense (except D. mesonotaliswhich is a member of the bispinosusspecies complex), including the bidens,lugans and diversus species complexes. The digitus of the volsella is elongate(Fig. ). The genitalia of the third and fourth groups are similar. The volsellaterminates in a sharp hook (Fig. ) in the third group, which includes the laminatus, debilis, and quadripunctatusspecies complexes. The volsella is similar in the fourth group, which includesthe bispinosus species complex, butthe digitus of the aedeagus is abruptly bent and forms a lateral platelikestructure (Fig. ). This structure defines this species complex, instead of themesosomal form of the worker. Males of the shattuckigroup are unknown.

Key to the workers of New Worldspecies of the genus Dolichoderus[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]:

attelaboidescomplex, couplet 15.
bidenscomplex, couplet 44.
bispinosuscomplex, couplet 18 (or 12 for D.mesonotalis).
debiliscomplex, couplet 29.
decollatuscomplex, couplet 17.
diversuscomplex, couplet 51.
imitatorcomplex, couplet 2.
laminatuscomplex, couplet 33.
luganscomplex, couplet 10.
quadripunctatuscomplex, couplet 41.
rugosuscomplex, go to couplet 13.
shattuckicomplex, go to couplet 7.

1. Mesonotummuch longer than wide (MI > 180, Fig. 1); mesopleuron at least twice as longas broad (Fig. 1); mesosoma extremely long and narrow, resulting in bizarrelooking ants; pronotum without angles or spines (Fig. 1) ........……...…...... 2

Fig. 1. Worker of D. longicollis.
- Mesonotum wider than long or only slightly longer thanwidth (MI < 180, Figs. ); mesopleuron usually not long and narrow; mesosomanot usually narrowed ………………………………………..….. 5

Fig. 2. Top of the mesosoma of a worker of D. inpai.
2(1). Propodealspines well developed (Fig. 3) ..........………………………………..... 3

Fig. 3. Propodeal spines of a worker of D. rugosus.

- Propodeal spines poorly developed, consistingof small auricles or angles (Fig. 4) (imitatorcomplex) .....……. imitator Emery


Fig. 4. Propodeum and petiole of a worker of D. imitator.

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]From Mackay (1993).


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ذكر
الحمل التِنِّين
عدد المساهمات : 1459
تاريخ الميلاد : 16/04/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 20/03/2010
العمر : 28
المزاج المزاج : رايق

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: بحث حول النمل أمريكا الشمالية للجنس DOLICHO - DERUS بالإنجليزية   الثلاثاء نوفمبر 23, 2010 11:36 am

3(2). Maxillary palps not elongated, extendingabout halfway to foramen magnum of head;mesopleural spine very small (Fig. 6) .………………………......... 4
Fig. 5. Mesosoma and maxillary palp of aworker of D. intermedius.
- Maxillarypalps very long, extending almost to foramen magnum; mesopleural spine welldeveloped (Fig. 7) (rugosus complex).………………….. 13


Fig. 6. Mesopleural spine of a worker of D. rugosus, as seen from above.
4(3). Vertexelongated as a long, tubular neck (Fig. 7) (attelaboidescomplex) .....………………………...... 15

Fig. 7. Head of a worker of D. longicollis.
- Vertex notelongated as a tubular neck (Fig. Cool (decollatuscomplex) ......…………………………………….... 17

Fig. 8. Head of a worker of D. decollatus.

5(1). Pronotumalways with spines or at least is sharply angulate (Fig. 9); apex of petioleoften terminating in a long spine (Fig. 13); surface of mesonotum usuallyconcave ..........…………………………………….. 6
Fig. 9.Mesosoma and petiole of a worker of D,.inermis as seen from above.

- Pronotum without spines or angles in workers (Fig. 24),or if angles present, they are small (Fig. 40) and the dorsal face of propodeumis at least 1.5 times longer than broad (Fig. 40); apex never terminating inlong spine, although small, median tooth may be present ………………………….. 9

Fig. 10. Mesosoma and petiole of a worker of D.luderwaldti, as seen from the top and from the side.
Fig. 11. Mesosoma and petiole of a worker of D.piceus.
6(5). Petiolarscale produced apically as a long, needlelike spine (Fig. 13) ....... 7
- Petiolar scale not produced apicallyas long, needlelike spine (Fig. 35), although may be produced apically as asmall spine ....................………….......... 8
7(6).
Mesosoma with three pairs of long, acute spines (Fig. 1) (shattucki complex) ..........…………….... shattucki Mackay


Fig. 12.Head, mesosoma, and petiole of D.shattucki.

- Mesosoma with at most 1 or 2 pairs of long,erect spines, if 3 pairs are present, at least metanotal spines short (Fig. xx)or in form of tubercles (bispinosuscomplex, in part) ............…..................... 18
8(6). Anterior surface of petiolar node nearly smooth and shining, usuallywith small, apical, median tooth; pronotum with distinct teeth; basidorsal tubercleson posterior coxae never present; dorsal face of propodeum narrower thanmesonotum (Fig. ); metanotal groove broad and deeply impressed (Fig. ) (debilis complex) ...... 29
- Petiolar scale opaque,strongly and densely sculptured, usually with an acuminate crest (Fig. ) (shortmedial spine in D. tristis and D. schulzi (Fig. xx); pronotumangulate, without teeth; basidorsal tubercles often present; dorsal face ofpropodeum usually at least as broad as mesonotum; metanotal groove narrow andshallowly impressed (laminatuscomplex) ........... 33
9(5). Propodeum not stronglyoverhanging petiole (Fig ); México (states of Tamaulipas and San Luís Potosí)south throughout Latin America ........................ 10
- Propodeum strongly overhangingpetiole in lateral view (Fig. ); found in northern México (Nuevo León) andeastern half of United States (quadripunctatuscomplex) ........………………………...... 41
10(9). Petiolar node thickenedand rounded (in lateral view) and never apically bidentate (Fig. ), and lengthof longest erect hairs on scape less than half diameter of scape (Fig. );entire ant heavily, densely and uniformly covered with coarse punctures;concolorous dark brown or black (mandibles, legs and antennae lighter) (lugans complex) ..….......………………………........... lugans Emery


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ذكر
الحمل التِنِّين
عدد المساهمات : 1459
تاريخ الميلاد : 16/04/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 20/03/2010
العمر : 28
المزاج المزاج : رايق

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: بحث حول النمل أمريكا الشمالية للجنس DOLICHO - DERUS بالإنجليزية   الثلاثاء نوفمبر 23, 2010 11:37 am

Fig. 13. Mesosoma and petiole of a worker of D. lugans.
- Petiolar node not thickened as above, or ifthickened (Fig. ), usually bidentate (Fig. ) and length of longest erect hairs on scape usually at least as long asdiameter of scape (Fig. , occasionally shorter or completely absent); sculptureranging from lightly punctate to foveolate, but varying considerably ondifferent body surfaces; usually light colored or at least not concolorous darkbrown ... 11
11(10). Length of longest erecthairs on scape less than or about equal to diameter of scape (Figs. ), orabsent (occasionally a few hairs are almost as long as 2 scape diameters, butmajority are much shorter); dorsal and posterior faces of propodeum usuallyseparated by transverse carina (Figs. ); propodeal spines poorly developed orabsent (Fig. ); node of petiole rarely bidentate .............. 12
- Length of longest erect hairs on scape about twice diameter of scape(Fig. ); dorsal face and posterior propodeal face not separated by transversecarina; propodeum usually with pair of well developed tubercles (Fig. ); node ofpetiole usually bidentate (Fig. ) (bidenscomplex) ....... 44
12(11). Concolorous black(except base of scape, mandibular teeth and tarsi); metanotal groove shallow(Fig. ); clypeus with dense, appressed pubescence; uncommon (bispinosus complex - in part) …………….......................................... mesonotalisForel


Fig. 14. Head of a worker of D. mesonotalis.

- Rarely concolorous black, when ant is dark,at least most of legs, parts of antenna and mandibles lighter; metanotal groovedeeply depressed (Fig. ); clypeus without dense, appressed pubescence (diversus complex) ........……………...... 51


rugosus complex:
13(3). Extincttaxa, Dominican Republic.........…………………………………..... 14
- Extant taxon, continental South America.…………....... rugosus (F.Smith)
14(13). Mesonotum stronglyprotruding (Fig. 7); pronotum not elongated at point of attachment to head(Fig. 7) ………............... …………………….. intermediusMackay
-
Mesonotum not strongly protruding (Fig. 5); pronotum elongated at the attachmentof head (Fig. 5) ......……...... ………………………..….. dibolius Wilson
Fig. 15. Mesosoma of a worker of D. dibolius.


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فجر الرحيل
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ذكر
الحمل التِنِّين
عدد المساهمات : 1459
تاريخ الميلاد : 16/04/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 20/03/2010
العمر : 28
المزاج المزاج : رايق

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: بحث حول النمل أمريكا الشمالية للجنس DOLICHO - DERUS بالإنجليزية   الثلاثاء نوفمبر 23, 2010 11:38 am

bispinosus complex:
18(7).Posterior corners of mesonotum and dorsal face of propodeum with spines,mesonotal spines shorter and suberect ...................……..... septemspinosus Emery


Fig. 21. Mesosoma and petiole of a worker of D. septemspinosus. need fig 1
- Posterior corners of mesonotum and dorsalface of propodeum without spines, at most with very small tooth on either orboth .............……………......... 19
19(18). Dorsal face of propodeum with posterior border marginate orcrested, overhanging excavate posterior face (Fig. ); posterior coxae with welldeveloped basidorsal tooth ...……………………..... 20
- Dorsal face of propodeum withposterior border emarginate, not overhanging flat or convex posterior face; posteriorcoxae without well developed tubercle ...……………………………..... 27
20(19). Scape and legs without erect hairs; color yellowish-brown ……………….………………………. doloniger (Roger)
- Scape and legs with abundanterect hairs; usually dark in color .............. 21
21(20). Petiolar summit (anterior view) more or less transversely truncate,usually crenulate, with lateral margins well differentiated from those of spine(Fig. xx); commonly collected .......................…..... 22
- Petiolar summit not transverselytruncate, lateral margin continuing and tapering into spine (Fig. ); not commonlycollected .............…………………......... 25
22(21). Sculpture of clypeus consisting of widely dispersed, finepunctures, sometimes with fine, longitudinal costulae; very common and widelydistributed from México to Brasil .......………………….…......... 23
- Sculpture of clypeus consistingof well defined, foveolate punctures (Fig. xx); rarely collected (northernSouth America) ......…....……………………………….... 24
23(22). Pronotal spines long (> 0.2 mm); common and widely distributed …………….………………….……. bispinosus (Olivier)


Fig. 22. Mesosoma of a worker of D.bispinosus. need fig 2
- Pronotalangles short (< 0.12 mm,(Fig. xx), uncommon, Amazonas Brasil ….. …………… haradae Mackay


Fig. 23. Mesosoma and petiole of a worker of D.haradae.need fig 3
24(23). Gaster with delicate, silver pubescence,legs orange in color, strongly contrasting with the dark black remainder of ant............……........... epetreia(Lattke)
- Gaster with golden pubescence;legs nearly concolorous with remainder of ant ............…………........ andinus Kempf
25(21). Vertex strongly concave ............. …………………...……… validus (Kempf)
- Vertexstraight or very weakly concave .....…………………………....... 26
26(25). Pronotal spinesprojecting anteriorly and slightly upwards .....curvilobus (Lattke)

Fig. 24. Mesosoma and petiole of a worker of D. curvilobus.
- Pronotal spines projecting obliquelyupwards ..... superaculus (Lattke)
27(19). Sides of head, antennal scapes, femora and tibia with erect hairs;pronotal spines as long as width of mesonotum .............…………..... omacanthus (Kempf)
- Sides of head, antennal scapes, femora and tibiae without erect hairs;pronotal spines either much longer or much shorter than width of mesonotum.......………..... 28
28(27). Posterior corners of dorsal face of propodeum dentate; pronotalspines huge, greatly exceeding width of mesonotum ............……………... spinicollis (Latreille)



Fig. 25. Mesosoma and petiole of a worker of D. spinicollis. The lower inset showsthe mesosoma in profile.

- Posteriorcorners of dorsal face of propodeum without teeth; pronotal spines much shorterthan width of mesonotum .... …….…………………. mucronifer(Roger)


debilis complex:
29(Cool. Posterior border of dorsal face of propodeumbluntly marginate; scapes (except apex) and superior border of petiole withouterect hairs (very small, white, erect hairs may be present), fewer than 2 erecthairs on femur; dorsum of gaster with sparse, finely appressed pubescence inaddition to scattered erect hairs ..…………..……….. …………………………...… debilis Emery


Fig. 26. Mesosoma and petiole of a worker of D. debilis. need fig 4
- Posterior border of dorsal face ofpropodeum usually sharply marginate, forming narrow, weakly elevated crest(Fig. 10); scapes, legs and apex of petiole with erect or suberect hairs;dorsum of gaster lacking appressed pubescence, although some of shorter hairsmay be suberect .......………………………………….... 30
30(29). Integument of head and dorsum of thorax strongly sculptured; mandibleswithout fine and dense striae, but with scattered punctures; light ferruginousred in color ................................. rufescens Mann
- Integument of head and dorsumof thorax nearly smooth and shining; mandibles finely and densely striate ornearly smooth; color reddish-brown to dark brown ......... 31
31(30). Mesonotum longer than wide (1.15 < MI < 1.56, Fig. );mandibles smooth with few scattered punctures; petiolar apex conspicuouslybroader than posterior face of propodeum; rarely collected brown ant (Brasil, Venezuela).…..... inpai (Harada)
- Mesonotum wider than long (MI< 0.97, Fig. ); mandibles roughened, finely and densely striate; petiolarscale not conspicuously broader (only slightly broader) than posterior face ofpropodeum (Fig. ); occasionally collected, widely distributed.........……………………………...….... 32
32(31). Posterior border of propodeum with sharply marginate, elevatedapex; relatively common black ant (Brasil and Bolivia) …………………. gagates Emery


Fig. 27. Mesosoma and petiole of a worker of D. gagates.

- Posteriorborder of propodeum rounded, lateral corners angulate (Fig. ); rarely collected(Costa Rica)………… ………………………….. inermis Mackay



Fig. 28. Mesosoma and petiole of a worker of D. inermis.

laminatus complex:
33(Cool. Mesonotum as long as, or longer than broad,concave in middle, lateral margins slightly elevated; posterior coxa withoutbasidorsal tubercle ..........…….. 34
- Mesonotum broader than long,flat, lateral margins not elevated; posterior coxa with well developedbasidorsal tubercle ………………………………………….. 36
34(33). Mesosoma lacking erect hairs (erect hairs present near mouthparts,on front coxa and on gaster); common species .....…………………………………...... 35
- Mesosoma with short (3.0 - 3.5 mm), fine, erect hairs;uncommon ……….. …………………………….. varians Mann
35(34). Common, extant species; dorsal border of petiolar node convex infull face view .………………....... laminatus(Mayr)
- Extinct taxon (Dominican Republic);dorsal border of petiolar node concave in full face view ……………........ ……………………prolaminatus (Wilson)
36(33). Dorsum of mesosoma finely and densely reticulate-punctate; transverseborder of petiolar summit sharply marginate, but not crested nor lamellate, usuallywith short spine arising abruptly from the middle.............………………………………..... 37
- Dorsum of mesosoma coarselyreticulate-rugose and foveolate; border of petiolar apex with inclined,mesially acuminate crest ...……………………..... 38
37(36). Petiolar node thickened in profile (Fig. ), with well developed dorsaltooth; gaster with dense, silver pubescence ……..... ……………………………….. tristis Mann



Fig. 29. Petiole of a worker of D. tristis.
- Petiolar nodethin, usually with poorly developed dorsal tooth (Fig. xx); gaster with dilute,silver or golden pubescence ...........……….. schulzi Emery





Fig. 30. Side view of the petiole of a workerof D. schulzi.

38(36). Scape flattened and broadened at base asrounded lobe (Fig. ) ……….... ……………………….. lobicornis(Kempf)

Fig. 31. Base of the scape of a worker of D. rosenbergi.

- Scape cylindrical, not broadened at base asrounded lobe ……………... 39
39(38). Body thickly covered with short, fine, erect hairs................. setosus (Kempf)
- Body essentially without erecthairs, except for a few on head, fore coxa and gaster ...........…………………….... 40
40(39). Posterior border of propodeum broadly rounded (as seen from above);petiole without distinct, acuminate crest (Fig. ) ...………......... lamellosus (Mayr)



Fig. 32. Propodeum and petiole of a worker ofD. lamellosus. The arrow indicatesthe basidorsal tubercle of the posterior coxa.

- Posterior border of propodeum bilobed (asseen from above); petiole with distinct, acuminate crest ...... smithi Mackay


Fig. 33. Mesosoma and petiole of a worker of D. smithi.

quadripunctatus complex:
41(9). Dorsal face of propodeum subquadrate, less than1.2 times longer than broad (Fig. ) ........... taschenbergi (Mayr)



Fig. 34. Dorsal view of the propodeum of aworker of D. taschenbergi.

- Dorsal face ofpropodeum more than 1.4 times longer than broad (Fig. ) ... 42
42(41). Usually at least 10 erect hairs on scape (Fig. ) and 10 onpronotum; cephalic foveolae usually obvious and often coarse, deep and veryclosely set so that the surface between them forms reticulate-rugose pattern;pronotal disc coarsely sculptured with foveolate punctures or rugae; oftenbicolored with head darker than mesosoma ........………………......... plagiatus (Mayr)



Fig. 35. Head of a worker of D. plagiatus.

- Without erect hairs (or fewer than 9, excluding a few onapex) on scape and pronotum; dorsum of head usually densely and heavilypunctate with little or no evidence of foveolae; pronotal disc finelysculptured, usually with fine, dense, and closely set punctures; oftenbicolored with gaster darker than concolorous head and mesosoma.........………………………... 43
43(42). Often concolorous dark brown, when bicolored, head and thorax areusually brown, gaster dark brown; dorsal face of propodeum with coarse, deep,close-set foveolae forming a reticulate-rugose pattern...................…………..... pustulatusMayr
- Usually bicolored with head andthorax reddish, gaster dark brown; dorsal face of propodeum granulose ordensely shagreened ........………….... mariaeForel


bidens complex:
44(11). Apex of petiolar node pointed (Fig. ); clypeusoverhangs mandibles (Fig. ); taxon from Dominican amber …………....... ………………………..primitivus (Wilson)



Fig. 36. Petiole of a worker of D. primitivus, as seen from the front.
Fig. 37. Head, mesosoma and petiole of aworker of D. primitivus.
- Apex ofpetiolar node bidentate, or rounded (Figs. ); extant species. ..............……………………………........45
45(44). Head cordate in shape (full face view), widest portion of head posteriorto eye (Fig. ) .......……................... 46
- Head oval-elongate, with widestportion of head near eye (Fig. ), or orbiculate (Fig. ) and HL less than 1.5 mm .……………………………………….....47
46(45).
Pronotum and gaster mostly or entirely smooth and shining, withlittle or no pubescence; usually concolorous ferrugineous red; uncommon ……………..................………......... abruptus (F. Smith)
- Pronotum and gaster moderatelyor densely sculptured, usually at least gaster with moderately dense pubescence;usually bicolored (head and mesosoma reddish-brown, gaster black) orconcolorous dark brown; common ………………………… …………….. quadridenticulatus (Roger)
47(45).
Head elongate andoval in shape (Fig. ), HL > 1.40 mm ...................... 48
- Head orbiculate in shape (Fig.), HL usually < 1.40 mm.......…………...... 49
48(47).
Apex of petiolar node bluntlyrounded (in profile), teeth absent or poorly developed (Fig. ); head often withdense, appressed, golden pubescence; concolorous reddish-yellow; relativelyuncommon ........... …………….................... ferruginous Forel
- Apex of petiolar nodewith sharp margin (in profile) (Fig. ), petiolar teeth usually well developed(Fig. ); head with little or no appressed pubescence; usually concolorous darkbrown or black; very common ......................... bidens (Linnaeus)
49(47).
Head with appressed,golden pubescence; usually concolorous reddish-yellow ......………........... ferruginous Forel
- Head with little or nogolden pubescence; or if golden pubescence is present, ant not concolorousreddish-yellow .......................………………………...... 50
50(49).
Head slightly cordate in shape (Fig. ); head usually reddish brownwith remainder of ant dark brown; propodeal spiracle more than 1 diameter frompropodeal declivity (Fig. ) …………………. cogitans Forel
- Head narrowly rounded atvertex; usually dark brown, or grey-brown with dense, golden pubescence ongaster; propodeal spiracle about one diameter from propodeal declivity (Fig. )... spurius Forel

diversus complex:
51(12). Scape without erect hairs (except for few atapex), occasionally with suberect or appressed hairs (Fig. ) …………........ 52
- Entire scape with numerouscompletely erect hairs, whose maximum length is approximately equal to maximumdiameter of scape (Fig. ) ......................... 56
52(51).
Scapes and tibiae completelylacking erect hairs; pronotum never angulate; common species ....……. lutosus(F. Smith)
- Scapes and tibiae withsuberect or decumbent hairs (Fig. ), especially near apex of scape; pronotumweakly angulate at shoulders; uncommon species .......... 53
53(52).
Concolorous light brown, pale yellow or bicolored (head, mesosomalight, gaster dark); pronotum with poorly defined angles; widely distributed..................... 54
- Concolorous black extant species orreddish-brown fossil taxon; pronotal angles well defined (Figs. ) ………….... 55

Fig. 38. Mesosoma and petiole of a worker of D.piceus as seen from the top.

54(53). Posterior border of propodeum with stronglyupturned flange (Fig. ), dorsal surface concave; widely distributed ...…………………………......... ghilianii Emery
- Posterior border of propodeumrounded (Fig. ), dorsal surface convex; rarely collected (Colombia) ........ baenaeMackay
55(53). Concolorous black; Colombia............………………….. piceus Mackay
- Concolorous reddish-brown, fossil taxon from Dominican Republic ................ ………………..........caribbaeus(Wilson)
56(51). First gastral tergite withdense, appressed pubescence, in addition to numerous silver or yellowish erecthairs; malar area without foveolate punctures; rarely collected …………………….........57
- First gastral tergite without dense, appressed pubescence, or ifpubescence present, malar area with numerous deep, foveolate punctures; verycommon ants ............................…………………......... 59
57(56).
HL < 1.53 mm (Fig. ); mesonotumelongate (MI > 129) ............. 58
- HL > 1.58 mm (Fig. ); mesonotumround in shape (MI < 128) .......................................... lujaeSantschi



[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]





[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]


الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
فجر الرحيل
المدير العــــام
المدير العــــام


ذكر
الحمل التِنِّين
عدد المساهمات : 1459
تاريخ الميلاد : 16/04/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 20/03/2010
العمر : 28
المزاج المزاج : رايق

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: بحث حول النمل أمريكا الشمالية للجنس DOLICHO - DERUS بالإنجليزية   الثلاثاء نوفمبر 23, 2010 11:38 am


Fig. 39. Head of a worker of D. lujae.


Fig. 40. Mesosoma and petiole of a worker of D. lujae as seen from the top andfrom the side.


58(56). Posterior border of head concave; medialclypeal margin strongly emarginate (Fig. xx); southeast Brasil ………………………………………. luederwaldti Santschi
- Posterior border of head not concave (Fig. xx); medial marginof clypeus almost straight; Colombia. laurae Mackay
59(56).
Dorsum of head andmalar area moderately punctate, usually with few or no foveolae; MI > 130(Fig. ); area between dorsal face of propodeum and sides usually rounded;generally bicolored with head and mesosoma reddish-brown and gaster darker, orwith alternating light and dark brown bands on gaster; common, widelydistributed species (México to Bolivia) ......………….... …………………………... diversusEmery
- Dorsum of head and malararea with numerous coarse foveolae, in addition to dense punctures; MI < 130(Fig. ); dorsal face of propodeum separated from sides by sharp angle or carina(Fig. ); usually predominantly concolorous dark reddish-brown or black, if bicolored,head and gaster dark brown or black, mesosoma lighter, or head and mesosomaconcolorous, gaster striped light and dark brown; uncommon (southern Brasil).........…………......... 60
60(59).
Pronotum with foveolae; head orbiculate in shape (Fig. ); gastralterga with moderately dense, appressed, silver pubescence ................ voraginosusMackay
- Pronotum without foveolae,but very roughened in sculpture; head triangular in shape; gaster withoutsilver pubescence .......................………....... germaini Emery


Key to the known females of the New World species of Dolichoderus[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]

attelaboidescomplex, couplet 2
bidenscomplex, couplet 19.
bispinosuscomplex, couplet 8.
debiliscomplex, couplet 26.
decollatuscomplex, couplet 3.
diversuscomplex, couplet 24.
imitatorcomplex, couplet 5.
laminatuscomplex, couplet 15.
luganscomplex, couplet 18.
quadripunctatuscomplex, couplet 12.
rugosuscomplex, couplet 4.
shattuckicomplex, couplet 4.

1. HL > 2.7 mm;discoidal cell usually shaped as pentagon; propodeal spines well developed..............…………............ 2
- HL < 2.6 mm;discoidal cell usually rectangular; propodeal spines usually reduced to smallangles ............……….. 5
2(1). Posterior border of head drawnout as a long, tubular neck (attelaboidescomplex) ....……….......... attelaboides (Fabricius)[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
- Posterior border of head notdrawn out as tubular neck .…………………...... 3
3(2).
Maxillary palps short,extending about half distance to foramen magnum; mesopleural spine poorlydeveloped (decollatus complex) .. decollatusF. Smith[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
- Maxillary palps long,extending nearly to foramen magnum; mesopleural spine well developed...................……..... 4
4(3).
Pair of spines present on pronotum; petiole with a single spine (shattucki complex)........................ shattucki Mackay
- Without spines on pronotum and petiole (rugosus complex) ......................... …………………......... rugosus(F. Smith)
5(1).
Propodeal declivity with numerous coarse, transverse striae;petiole strongly inclined anteriorly and node bidentate (imitator complex) ........... imitator Emery
- Propodeal declivity without coarse, transverse striae (if present, they arevery fine and only near spines); if petiole is bidentate, it is not stronglyinclined anteriorly ........…………………………………........ 6
6(5).
Pronotum armed with spines or angles ..........…………………………………….. 7
- Pronotum without spines or angles..........…………………………………..... 11
7(6).
Pronotum armed with spines,although they may be small; petiolar node usually armed with apical tooth (bispinosus complex) .…………………….…………. 8
- Pronotum armed with flattenedangles; petiolar node without spine, usuallyflattened, roughened and with acuminate crest (laminatus complex) ...................... 15



bispinosus complex
8(7). Propodeum unarmed, completely rounded posteriorly ..... mucronifer(Roger)
- Propodeum with at leastcarina separating dorsal and posterior faces …... 9
9(Cool.
Scape with numerous erecthairs .....…………………………………......... 10
- Scape without any erect hairs(possibly a few at apex) ......……………...... ………………………. curvilobus (Lattke)
10(9).
Scape relatively short (SI < 96); México south to Brasil,very common ........………………... bispinosus (Olivier)
- Scape relatively long (SI > 99), Costa Rica south to Colombia, uncommon ....... …...........……………….validus(Kempf)
11(6). Found in North America(including temperate northern México) (quadridenticulatuscomplex) .……....... 12
- Found in Latin America (includingtropical areas in northern México) ........... 17


quadripunctatus complex:
12(11). Scapes with more than 10 erect hairs; dorsum of head withfoveolae ............ …………….................... plagiatus (Mayr)
- Scapes without erect hairs; dorsum of head with poorly definedfoveolae or mostly smooth and shining .........……...... 13
13(12).
Mesoscutum and mesopleuron densely punctate; dorsal face of propodeumcoarsely foveolate ............ pustulatus Mayr
- Mesoscutum and mesopleuron smooth and shining; dorsal face ofpropodeum smooth or finely punctate ........................ 14
14(13).
Usually concolorous dark brown; first tergum of gaster with 10 ormore erect and suberect hairs ...... taschenbergi (Mayr)
- Usually bicolored, with gaster darker than head and mesosoma;first tergum with fewer than 5 erect hairs, usually none......................................... mariae Forel


laminatuscomplex
15(7). Basidorsal coxal tooth well developed ............…………………….....16
- Basidorsal coxal tooth not developed……....... laminatus (Mayr)
16(15).
Posterior border of propodeal declivity concave; commonlycollected ....................…………... lamellosus (Mayr)
- Posterior border ofpropodeal declivity convex; rarely collected ............... .........……………………..schulziEmery
17(11).
HL > 1.75 mm, HW > 1.55 mm ...........………………………………....... 18
- HL < 1.65 mm, HW < 1.50 mm .................…………………………….....24
18(17).
Entire ant densely and evenly punctate; color dark reddish-brown;petiole thickened with rounded apex .....…….......... .......…………………….... lugensEmery
- Sculpture variable, butat least sculpture on gaster not as coarse as that of head; color variable, butmay be concolorous dark reddish-brown; petiole usually not notably thickened,with rounded apex ...... 19


bidens complex19(18). Concolorous ferrugineous yellowish-red, gaster smooth andstrongly shining, essentially without appressed pubescence .………..... abruptus (F. Smith)
- Other coloration, orgaster not smooth and shining and with abundant appressed pubescence ..…………….......20
20(19).
Headweakly cordate, with concave vertex; head usually reddish-brown, remainder ofan darker in color ......……… …………….… quadridenticulatus (Roger)
- Head usuallyoval-elongate,

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]Note: Worker key may be useful for identification of undescribed females.Females are often difficult to identify, but are similar to workers andidentifications can usually be verified by comparing them to workers. FromMackay (1993).

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]Undescribed females of D. rowenbergi and D. longicollis may keyto this couplet.

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]Undescribed female of D. fernandezi may key to this couplet.


[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]





[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]


الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
فجر الرحيل
المدير العــــام
المدير العــــام


ذكر
الحمل التِنِّين
عدد المساهمات : 1459
تاريخ الميلاد : 16/04/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 20/03/2010
العمر : 28
المزاج المزاج : رايق

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: بحث حول النمل أمريكا الشمالية للجنس DOLICHO - DERUS بالإنجليزية   الثلاثاء نوفمبر 23, 2010 11:39 am


Fig. 39. Head of a worker of D. lujae.


Fig. 40. Mesosoma and petiole of a worker of D. lujae as seen from the top andfrom the side.


58(56). Posterior border of head concave; medialclypeal margin strongly emarginate (Fig. xx); southeast Brasil ………………………………………. luederwaldti Santschi
- Posterior border of head not concave (Fig. xx); medial marginof clypeus almost straight; Colombia. laurae Mackay
59(56).
Dorsum of head andmalar area moderately punctate, usually with few or no foveolae; MI > 130(Fig. ); area between dorsal face of propodeum and sides usually rounded;generally bicolored with head and mesosoma reddish-brown and gaster darker, orwith alternating light and dark brown bands on gaster; common, widelydistributed species (México to Bolivia) ......………….... …………………………... diversusEmery
- Dorsum of head and malararea with numerous coarse foveolae, in addition to dense punctures; MI < 130(Fig. ); dorsal face of propodeum separated from sides by sharp angle or carina(Fig. ); usually predominantly concolorous dark reddish-brown or black, if bicolored,head and gaster dark brown or black, mesosoma lighter, or head and mesosomaconcolorous, gaster striped light and dark brown; uncommon (southern Brasil).........…………......... 60
60(59).
Pronotum with foveolae; head orbiculate in shape (Fig. ); gastralterga with moderately dense, appressed, silver pubescence ................ voraginosusMackay
- Pronotum without foveolae,but very roughened in sculpture; head triangular in shape; gaster withoutsilver pubescence .......................………....... germaini Emery


Key to the known females of the New World species of Dolichoderus[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]

attelaboidescomplex, couplet 2
bidenscomplex, couplet 19.
bispinosuscomplex, couplet 8.
debiliscomplex, couplet 26.
decollatuscomplex, couplet 3.
diversuscomplex, couplet 24.
imitatorcomplex, couplet 5.
laminatuscomplex, couplet 15.
luganscomplex, couplet 18.
quadripunctatuscomplex, couplet 12.
rugosuscomplex, couplet 4.
shattuckicomplex, couplet 4.

1. HL > 2.7 mm;discoidal cell usually shaped as pentagon; propodeal spines well developed..............…………............ 2
- HL < 2.6 mm;discoidal cell usually rectangular; propodeal spines usually reduced to smallangles ............……….. 5
2(1). Posterior border of head drawnout as a long, tubular neck (attelaboidescomplex) ....……….......... attelaboides (Fabricius)[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
- Posterior border of head notdrawn out as tubular neck .…………………...... 3
3(2).
Maxillary palps short,extending about half distance to foramen magnum; mesopleural spine poorlydeveloped (decollatus complex) .. decollatusF. Smith[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
- Maxillary palps long,extending nearly to foramen magnum; mesopleural spine well developed...................……..... 4
4(3).
Pair of spines present on pronotum; petiole with a single spine (shattucki complex)........................ shattucki Mackay
- Without spines on pronotum and petiole (rugosus complex) ......................... …………………......... rugosus(F. Smith)
5(1).
Propodeal declivity with numerous coarse, transverse striae;petiole strongly inclined anteriorly and node bidentate (imitator complex) ........... imitator Emery
- Propodeal declivity without coarse, transverse striae (if present, they arevery fine and only near spines); if petiole is bidentate, it is not stronglyinclined anteriorly ........…………………………………........ 6
6(5).
Pronotum armed with spines or angles ..........…………………………………….. 7
- Pronotum without spines or angles..........…………………………………..... 11
7(6).
Pronotum armed with spines,although they may be small; petiolar node usually armed with apical tooth (bispinosus complex) .…………………….…………. 8
- Pronotum armed with flattenedangles; petiolar node without spine, usuallyflattened, roughened and with acuminate crest (laminatus complex) ...................... 15



bispinosus complex
8(7). Propodeum unarmed, completely rounded posteriorly ..... mucronifer(Roger)
- Propodeum with at leastcarina separating dorsal and posterior faces …... 9
9(Cool.
Scape with numerous erecthairs .....…………………………………......... 10
- Scape without any erect hairs(possibly a few at apex) ......……………...... ………………………. curvilobus (Lattke)
10(9).
Scape relatively short (SI < 96); México south to Brasil,very common ........………………... bispinosus (Olivier)
- Scape relatively long (SI > 99), Costa Rica south to Colombia, uncommon ....... …...........……………….validus(Kempf)
11(6). Found in North America(including temperate northern México) (quadridenticulatuscomplex) .……....... 12
- Found in Latin America (includingtropical areas in northern México) ........... 17


quadripunctatus complex:
12(11). Scapes with more than 10 erect hairs; dorsum of head withfoveolae ............ …………….................... plagiatus (Mayr)
- Scapes without erect hairs; dorsum of head with poorly definedfoveolae or mostly smooth and shining .........……...... 13
13(12).
Mesoscutum and mesopleuron densely punctate; dorsal face of propodeumcoarsely foveolate ............ pustulatus Mayr
- Mesoscutum and mesopleuron smooth and shining; dorsal face ofpropodeum smooth or finely punctate ........................ 14
14(13).
Usually concolorous dark brown; first tergum of gaster with 10 ormore erect and suberect hairs ...... taschenbergi (Mayr)
- Usually bicolored, with gaster darker than head and mesosoma;first tergum with fewer than 5 erect hairs, usually none......................................... mariae Forel


laminatuscomplex
15(7). Basidorsal coxal tooth well developed ............…………………….....16
- Basidorsal coxal tooth not developed……....... laminatus (Mayr)
16(15).
Posterior border of propodeal declivity concave; commonlycollected ....................…………... lamellosus (Mayr)
- Posterior border ofpropodeal declivity convex; rarely collected ............... .........……………………..schulziEmery
17(11).
HL > 1.75 mm, HW > 1.55 mm ...........………………………………....... 18
- HL < 1.65 mm, HW < 1.50 mm .................…………………………….....24
18(17).
Entire ant densely and evenly punctate; color dark reddish-brown;petiole thickened with rounded apex .....…….......... .......…………………….... lugensEmery
- Sculpture variable, butat least sculpture on gaster not as coarse as that of head; color variable, butmay be concolorous dark reddish-brown; petiole usually not notably thickened,with rounded apex ...... 19


bidens complex19(18). Concolorous ferrugineous yellowish-red, gaster smooth andstrongly shining, essentially without appressed pubescence .………..... abruptus (F. Smith)
- Other coloration, orgaster not smooth and shining and with abundant appressed pubescence ..…………….......20
20(19).
Headweakly cordate, with concave vertex; head usually reddish-brown, remainder ofan darker in color ......……… …………….… quadridenticulatus (Roger)
- Head usuallyoval-elongate,

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]Note: Worker key may be useful for identification of undescribed females.Females are often difficult to identify, but are similar to workers andidentifications can usually be verified by comparing them to workers. FromMackay (1993).

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]Undescribed females of D. rowenbergi and D. longicollis may keyto this couplet.

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]Undescribed female of D. fernandezi may key to this couplet.


[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]





[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]


الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
فجر الرحيل
المدير العــــام
المدير العــــام


ذكر
الحمل التِنِّين
عدد المساهمات : 1459
تاريخ الميلاد : 16/04/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 20/03/2010
العمر : 28
المزاج المزاج : رايق

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: بحث حول النمل أمريكا الشمالية للجنس DOLICHO - DERUS بالإنجليزية   الثلاثاء نوفمبر 23, 2010 11:40 am

with vertex straight or only slightly concave; concolorousdark brown, reddish-brown or gray-brown ...........................…………... 21
21(20).
Petiole thickened inprofile, without well defined teeth on node; concolorous reddish orferrugineous brown .......………………….... ferrugineus Forel
- Petiole not thickened inprofile, usually with 2 well-defined teeth on node; usually concolorous darkreddish-brown or grayish-brown ..............………............. 22
22(21). Teeth on node of petiole well developed; usually dark reddishbrown; commonly collected .……………............ 23
- Teeth on node of petiole notwell developed; usually greyish-brown; uncommonly collected ........... spuriusForel
23(22). Propodeum with pair of angles; head elongate(82 < CI < 85); pronotum punctate .........………... bidens (Linnaeus)
- Propodeum with pair of lobes(Fig. ); head not elongate (CI = 96); pronotum with transverse rugae.………....... ………..…. undescribed species near bidens
24(17). HL > 1.20 mm........................ 25
- HL < 1.10 mm........................ 28


diversus complex
25(24). Scapes with erect hairs; HL > 1.4 mm .....………………………………......26
- Scapeswithout erect hairs (or with a few appressed hairs); HL < 1.4 mm .................…………………………........27
26(25). Propodeum with small angles connected by carina; petiolar node withcarina or ridge; common, widely distributed (México to Brasil) ………. diversusEmery
- Propodeum with large, blunttubercles (Fig. ), not connected by carina; petiolar node blunt, truncate in profile(Fig. ); uncommon (Colombia).. laurae Mackay
27(25). Scapes without standing or appressed hair;commonly collected .......... .……………....……....... lutosus (F. Smith)
- Scapes with appressed hairs;rarely collected .………..... ghilianii Emery



debilis complex
27(24). Concolorous brown; scape without erect hairs;relatively commonly collected ........…………….... debilis Emery
- Concolorous yellowish-red;scape with erect hairs; rarely collected .............. …….........…………....... rufescensMann


Key to the known males of the New World species of Dolichoderus [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]:
attelaboidescomplex, couplet 3.
bidenscomplex, couplet 12.
bispinosuscomplex, couplet 15.
debiliscomplex, couplet 26.
decollatuscomplex, couplet 4 (males unkown)
diversuscomplex, couplet 8.
imitatorcomplex, couplet 2.
laminatuscomplex, couplet 22.
luganscomplex, couplet 6.
quadripunctatuscomplex, couplet 19.
rugosuscomplex, couplet 4.
shattuckicomplex, males unknown.

1. Subgenital plate large, well developed, with2 large fingers or flattened processes (Fig. ) ................………............ 2
- Subgenital plate small, poorlydeveloped, consisting at most of only single rounded lobe (Fig. ) ......……………….....5
2(1). Subgenital plate formed into 2 elongate fingers (Fig. ) ……………….... 3
- Subgenital plate consisting of2 flattened, bidentate processes (Fig. ) (imitatorcomplex) .....…… imitator Emery
3(2). Occipital neck well formed (Fig. ) .....………………. attelaboides (Fabricius)[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
- Occipital neck not tubularor elongate .........……………………...... 4
4(3). Petiolar node twice as long as broad ..…………... rugosus (F. Smith)[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
- Petiolar node about as long asbroad .………. unknown males of decollatusand fernandezi would probably keyhere
5(1). Digitus of volsella elongateand usually enlarged at apex (Fig. ) ............ 6
- Digitus of volsella hook-likeand not elongated (Fig. ) .…………….... 14
6(5).
Entire body strongly and evenlypunctate ………………..... lugens Emery
- Sculpture variable ondifferent parts of body ……………………….. 7
7(6).
HL < 1.06 mm; ocelli projectabove posterior border of head in full face view (Fig. 117) (diversus complex) ......... 8
- HL > 1.06 mm; ocelli do notproject (or only slightly) above posterior border in full face view (Fig. ) (bidens complex) ………………………………... 12

diversus complex
8(7). Ocelli strongly protruding (Fig. ); scape withsubdecumbant to erect hairs (Fig. xx) ………………………………………. 9
- Ocelli not as strongly protruding;scape without erect or even subdecumbant hairs (very rarely 1 - 2 small,subdecumbant hairs) ...……………... lutosus (F. Smith)
9(Cool.
With at least some hairserect on scape (Fig. ); usually concolorous dark brown; relatively common……………... 10
- Mosthairs on scape subdecumbant or appressed (Fig. ); head and mesosoma concolorousyellowish-brown, gaster darker brown; very rarely collected....……………………………………….. 11
10(Cool.
Propodeum completely rounded atborder of dorsal and posterior faces; entire ventral margin of aedeagus withteeth (Fig. xx); common and widely distributed (Mexicosouth to southern Brazil).. diversusEmery
- Propodeum with well-developed tubercles; only posterior halfof aedeagus with teeth (Fig. xx); Colombia …. laurae xx
11(9).
Scape subequal in length (orlonger) to length of second funicular segment (Fig. ) .....….... ghilianiiEmery
- Scape about 1/2 length (0.58- 0.59 X length) of second funicular segment (Fig. ) ....... undescribedspecies near D. ghilianii
12(7). Concolorous golden yellow; most surfacesglossy and shining ..………............ ………………..…….. abruptus (F. Smith)
- Concolorous brown; allsurfaces dull ..……………………………............. 13
13(12).
Lateral corners of apex ofnode of petiole weakly rounded (Fig. ), area between corners flat or weakly concave;spiracle located low on petiole (Fig. ) ................ ……………………….. bidens(Linnaeus)
- Lateral corners of apex of nodeof petiole more angulate (Fig. ), area between them concave; spiracle locatedhigher on petiole (Fig. ) .. quadridenticulatus (Roger)
14(5).
Digitus of aedeagusterminating in a laterally twisted, flattened plate (Fig. ) (bispinosus complex) ...................15
- Digitus of aedeagus usuallyterminating as a sharp, hook-like structure, which is not laterally twisted(Fig. ) ....... 18


bispinosus complex
15(14). HL < 1.2 mm; México south to Brasil, common……………………........ 16
- HL > 1.2 mm; Costa Rica south to Colombia; rarely collected ... validusKempf
16(15). Apex ofpetiolar node convex, without angulate corners (Fig. ); uncommon............……………………………...... 17
- Apex of petiolar node usuallyconcave; weakly angulate on each corner (occasionally flat and truncate) commonlycollected .............. bispinosus (Olivier)
17(16).
Node of petiolewell-developed, without strongly protruding spiracles (Fig. ).........……………….... mucronifer (Roger)
- Node of petiole low,poorly developed (Fig. xx), petiole with strongly protruding spiracles (Figs. )............. mesonotalis Forel
18(14).
Occurring in North America, primarily in the United States (also state of Nuevo León, México) (quadripunctatus complex)..........…………………........... 19
- Occurring in Latin America in tropical areas ………………………....... 22


quadripunctatus complex
19(18). First tergum and posterior edge of pronotumwith at least 3 erect or suberect, short hairs; aedeagus with five or six verysmall teeth (Fig. ) ................... ……………………… taschenbergi (Mayr)
- First tergum and posterior edgeof pronotum without erect hairs; teeth on aedeagus long and well developed(Fig. ), or more than 6 teeth present ................. 20
20(19).
Distance from median ocellusto lateral ocellus equal to maximum diameter of median ocellus (Fig. ); wingswith media attached to radius at same point with cross vein from stigma, and extendsalmost to margin of wing (Fig. ) ........ mariae Forel
- Distance from median ocellus tolateral ocellus about 1.4 times maximum diameter of median ocellus; distancefrom connection of media to radius at least 1/3 as long as length of crossvein,median often does not extend to margin of wing (Fig. ).....…………………………………........ 21
21(20). Distance from connection of media to radius of fore wing often subequalin length to crossvein (Fig. ); aedeagus with teeth only on the posteriorborder; volsella large and well developed (Fig. ) ......... ………………………. pustulatusMayr
- Distance from connection ofmedia to radius usually about 1/3 length of crossvein (Fig. ); aedeaguswith teeth over entire ventral border in addition to anterior border; volsellasmall and poorly developed (Fig. ) ........ plagiatus (Mayr)


laminatus complex
22(18). Node of petiole often with sharp apex,anterior face of petiole rugose or roughly sculptured ........………….......... 23
- Apex of node of petiole usuallycompletely rounded and blunt, (Fig. xx) or with median tooth (Fig. xx), anteriorface of petiole almost smooth or only lightly punctate ..…….………………………..... 24
23(22).
Ocelli not stronglyprotruding (Fig. ); WL < 1.5 mm ………………..… ..................................... lamellosus(Mayr)
- Ocelli stronglyprotruding (Fig. ); WL > 2.0 mm .............. varians Mann
24(22).
Anterior surface ofpetiole lightly punctate, apex of node terminating in tooth (Fig. ) or nodethickened with acuminate border (Fig. xx) .........……….……... 25
- Anterior surface of petiole mostlysmooth and moderately shining, apex of node not terminating in tooth (Fig. ).....………………………………............ 26
25(24). Apex of petiole terminating in tooth (Fig.xx) ………….. tristis Mann
- Apex of node terminating in acuminate border (Fig. xx) …… schulzi xx


debilis complex
26(24). Scutumdensely, but shallowly punctate; concolorous dark brown .............……………………….......... debilis Emery
- Scutum roughlysculptured, foveolate; yellowish-brown with gaster somewhat lighter in color…………............. ………………………….. rufescens Mann


Characteristics of the species complexes
attelaboidesspecies complex

The workers, femalesand males of this species complex have elongated, tubular occipital necks (Fig.), which easily distinguishes them from members of other species complexes. Thesculpture is rough, with rugae and foveolate punctures. The gaster is denselypunctate in most species (except rosenbergi).There are numerous erect hairs, especially on the scapes. The maxillary palpsare relatively short, the mesopleural spine is poorly developed. The subgenitalplate of the male has two long processes (Fig. ). The stipites are welldeveloped (Fig. xx) and the lateral tooth of the aedeagus is poorly developed(Fig. ). The volsellae are strongly hooked (Fig. ). Species in this complexinclude D. attelaboides, D. longicollis, and D. rosenbergi.

bidens speciescomplex

This is the mostdifficult complex. It consists of a bewildering array of forms which intergradeinto one another. We are fortunate that the vast majority of the specimens collectedare either D. bidens or D. quadridenticulatus, which are usually easily distinguished.
Workers and femalesof this species are moderate to large ants (WL 3.3 to 5.0 mm); the mandibles areusually moderately shining with scattered punctures, usually with only 8 to 10teeth on the masticatory border, the apical tooth is usually more developed;and 2 - 10 teeth on basal border, first two well-developed, others usuallyreduced and may appear as a serrated edge only; the clypeus rarely has a medialnotch, the anterior border is usually slightly convex; the mesosoma is robust,the metanotal area is strongly constricted; the propodeum often has teeth orbumps on the lateral corners, which are not connected by a carina; the petiolarnode is usually bidentate. These are abundantly hairy ants, with long, erecthairs on most body surfaces, including the scapes, as well as appressedpubescence on many areas, especially the gaster. The length of the erect hairson the scape is greater than twice the diameter of scape.
The male genitaliaare similar to those of other species of group 2 (above???). Males of thiscomplex are occasionally difficult to distinguish from those of the diversus complex. They are larger (WL> 2.5 mm)than those of the diversus species complex,and are not completely punctate as are those of the lugans species complex. The aedeagus is large and toothed (Fig. ),the digitus is bent laterally and ends in a sharp point (Fig. ). The volsellais well developed, the digitus points ventrally and is usually enlarged at theend. The stipites are rudimentary or absent, as in all of the ants of this genus.
These ants are usually at least moderately aggressive.
Species in thiscomplex include D. abruptus, D. bidens, D. cogitans, D. ferrugineus,D. primitivus,D.quadridenticulatus, and D. spurius.

bispinosus speciescomplex

The workers of all ofthe species in this complex, except D.mesonotalis, have welldeveloped pronotal spines and the petiolar scale is produced as a needlelikespine. Females of most of the species are similar, except that the pronotal andpetiolar spines are smaller. Males have neither of these characteristics; theyare easily recognized as the volsellae are as in groups 3 and 4, but thedigitus of the aedeagus is bent laterally and forms a flat, rounded plate (Fig.). Dolichoderus mesonotalis is anunusual member of the complex as the workers do not have spines on the pronotumor on the petiolar scale. They are clearly members of the complex as the malesare typical of the group and are very similar to those of D. bispinosus. There are a number of characters that have been usedin species recognition of workers, especially the sculpture of the dorsal faceof the propodeum and the shape of the posterior margin of the propodeum, butthat are not important, due to the variability within species. Nanitics aresmaller, are more coarsely sculptured, the head is rounded and not stronglyconcave (especially obvious in species in which the posterior margin of thehead is concave), and the mesosoma is relatively more elongated.
These ants attack very aggressively when the nest isdisturbed. They do not sting, of course, but the biting of hundreds of ants candrive away all but the most persistent myrmecologist. They have a strong“dolichoderine” border when they attack.
Members of the complex include D. andinus, D. bispinosus,D. curvilobus, D. doloniger, D. epetrieia,D. haradae,D. mesonotalis,D. mucronifer, D. obscurus, D. omacanthus,D. septemspinosus, D. spinicollis, D. superaculus and D. validus.

debilisspecies complex

The workers of this species complex are closely related,small ants (WL slightly greater than 1 mm). All known species have well developed,but small pronotal spines. The metanotal groove is very wide and deep. Thebasidorsal coxal tubercle is never developed. The anterior surface of thepetiolar node is smooth and weakly shining. The node is rarely marginate andusually terminates in a small tooth or angle. The females lack pronotal spinesand could be easily confused with females of the diversus species complex, as was pointed out by Kempf (1959). Dolichoderus schulzi is not a member ofthis species complex and is placed with the laminatusspecies complex, together with the closely related D. tristis.
These ants are timid and lack the “dolichoderine” odor.
Members include D.debilis, D. gagates, D.inermis, D. inpai, and D. rufescens.

decollatus speciescomplex

Workers of this complex are very closely related to the attelaboides complex and could probablybe considered as members of that complex. The only difference is that the occiputis not elongated into a tubular neck. All of the species have greatly elongatedmesosomal regions, as do species of the attelaboidescomplex. The sculpture is very coarse, consisting in most cases of foveolatepunctures. The males are unknown, but would probably be similar to those of theattelaboides complex.
These ants are very aggressive when the nest is disturbed.
Members include D.decollatus and D. fernandezi.

diversus speciescomplex

This species complexconsists of relatively small species found from México south to Brasil. Workersare distinguished from those of other species complexes in that they are onlymoderately hairy, the dorsal face and propodeal declivity are separated by atransverse carina, and the petiolar node is thin in profile and is rarelybidentate.
These ants aresmaller (WL < 2.3 mm)than most of the other members of the genus. The antennal scapes are eitherwithout erect hairs (D. ghilianii, D. lutosus, and D. piceus) or the longest erect hairs are about equal to thediameter of the scape (Fig. ). The propodeal angles are usually poorly developedand connected by a transverse carina (Fig. ). The node of the petiole is rarelybidentate (Fig. ). Females are similar to workers. Males resemble those of the bidens species complex, but are smaller(WL < 2.3 mm).
These ants are usually not aggressive, and attempt to escapewhen the nest is disturbed. They do not have a notable odor.
Members include D. baenae, D. caribbaea, D. diversus,D. germaini, D. ghilianii, D. laurae, D.luederwaldti, D. lujae, D. lutosus,D. piceus, and D. voraginosus.

imitator speciescomplex

The single species inthis complex, imitator is easilyrecognized. The propodeum of the worker and female are armed with auricle-likestructures (Fig. ), and the descending face of the propodeum is covered withtransverse costulae (Fig. ). The subgenital plate of the male consists of twoflattened appendages which are each bi-lobed (Fig. ). The stipites arerudimentary and the digitus of the aedeagus is a long, curved structure (Fig.).

laminatus speciescomplex

Workers and femalesof this species complex have broad, platelike pronotal angles, and thepropodeum overhangs the petiole. The apex of the petiolar node is usuallyacuminate, rarely with a small median spine (except in D. tristis and D. schulzi).The anterior surface of the node is opaque and covered with rough sculpture.Females are very similar to the workers and can usually be identified by simplecomparison. There are apparently no characters which distinguish males fromthose of the quadripunctatus speciescomplex. Fortunately there is no sympatry of the two complexes, which allowstheir separation. The paramers are relatively large (Fig. ). The volsellae arethickened and the stipites are small (Fig. ).
These ants are not aggressive and usually lack an odor(except D. tristis).
Members include D.lamellosus, D. laminatus, D. lobicornis, D. prolaminatus, D. schulzi,D. setosus, D. smithi, D. tristis andD. varians.

lugens speciescomplex

These ants are easilyrecognized as the worker and both sexes are completely covered with coarsepunctures, and are concolorous dark brown or black. They are also very differentin that the metanotal groove of the worker is very deep, the pronotum isrounded, and the petiole is rounded and thickened in lateral view (Fig. ). Theyare clearly members of Dolichoderusas the genitalia of the male (Fig. ) are similar to those of the bidens and diversus species complexes. >?? Missing p 14 The stipites arerudimentary, the posterior edge of the aedeagus is rounded, but a dorsal,lateral tooth is present. The digitus of the volsella is elongate and knobbedas it is in members of the bidens anddiversus species complexes.
There is a single species in the complex: D. lugans.

quadripunctatusspecies complex

The quadripunctatusspecies complex consists of species in which the propodeum overhangs thepetiole, and the pronotum is without angles (Fig. ). The extant New Worldspecies of the complex are found only in North America;it consists of four closely related species which are allied to the Europeanand Siberian D. quadripunctatus (L.).Mayr (1866) suggested that the four New Worldspecies could be conspecific. Based on numerous characteristics of the workers,females and especially the male genitalia, there are clearly four distinct species.In addition all four species co-occur in Michiganwith no evidence of hybridization (Kannowski, 1959a). Wheeler (1905a) revisedthis species complex, but had a number of misconceptions about the complex(Creighton, 1950).
The workers in thiscomplex are closely related to the Old Worldand Australian species of the genus. The propodeum of the worker extends overthe petiole as an overhanging shelf (Fig. ). The females are similar, exceptthe propodeum does not overhang the petiole to such an extent (Fig. ). The malegenitalia (Figs. ) of this complex are similar to those of the laminatus species complex (Fig. 148),showing a possible relationship between this complex and many species of "Monacis".
The worker mandiblesusually have scattered punctures, often mixed with fine striae or very finepunctures, 10 - 20 teeth, most poorly defined, except 2 - 4 apical teeth (Fig.); the clypeus has an indented region in the medial anterior border, with 10 -15 parallel longitudinal carinae; the sculpture of head and mesosoma variesfrom almost smooth and shining to with deep foveolate punctures; the mesosomais deeply impressed at the metanotal suture; the dorsal face of the propodeumextends posteriorly above the petiole (Fig. ); the gaster is usually weaklysmooth and shining. Erect hairs vary from none, to hairs on most surfaces,appressed pubescence is essentially absent The color ranges from lightyellowish red to concolorous dark brown.
The female is similar to the worker, the mandibles usuallyhave few teeth or only the apical tooth is well defined; the ocelli are largeand well developed; the sculpture of thehead, mesosoma and gaster are as in the worker; the propodeal declivity isconcave and slightly overhanging the petiole (Fig. ). The pilosity and colorare as in the worker.
The male hasmandibles with 10 - 15 teeth, of which all are small, except for the apicaltooth (Fig. ). The clypeus has little or no evidence of parallel carinae, theeyes and ocelli are large and well developed. The sculpture of the head andmesosoma is rough and densely and evenly punctate; the propodeum is rounded andnot extending even a slight amount over the petiole (Fig. ); the gaster ismostly smooth and shining. Parameres and stipites are considerably reduced inmost species (Figs. ).
These ants can become aggressive when the nest is disturbed. This is the only speciescomplex in the New World which always nests inthe soil. Dolichoderus bispinosus occasionally nests in the soil, butalways in association with deadwood. The quadripunctatusspecies complex in the New World consists of seven species (three extinct)whose distribution is limited to North America.
Species in this complex include D. antiguus, D. mariae, D. obliterus, D. plagiatus, D. pustulatus,D. rohweri, and D. taschenbergi.

rugosus speciescomplex

The workers andfemales of this complex are easily recognized as the spine on the lowermesopleural border is well developed (Fig. ) and the maxillary palps aregreatly elongated (Fig. ). The propodeum is armed with long, well developedspines (Fig. ). The female is very similar to the worker. The males are similarto those of the attelaboides complex,except the appendages on the subgenital plate are wider (Fig. ). In addition,the digitus of the aedeagus is strongly recurved (Fig. ), with a well developedlateral tooth.
Members of the complex include D. dibolia, D. intermedius and D. rugosus.

shattucki speciescomplex

There is a singlespecies, D. shattucki in this speciescomplex. The workers and females of this complex are among the most easilyrecognized of any Neotropical ants. The presence of long spines on thepronotum, propodeum (and mesonotum of the worker), in addition to the spine onthe petiole (Fig. 1), distinguish this species from all others. The longmaxillary palps distinguish it from any of the similar members of the bispinosus species complex. The malesare unknown.

NORTH AMERICANTAXA:
Dolichoderus abruptus (Fr. Smith)
(Figs. ) (Map )

Formica abruptaFr. Smith, 1858:45
Hypoclinea abruptaMayr, 1870a:956, 1870b:391-392; Kempf, 1972b:118; Jones and Blum, 1981:891
Dolichoderus abruptusEmery, 1894:236-237, 1912:11
Hypoclinea bidensRoger, 1862b:285, incorrectly considered as synonym, corrected by Mayr, 1870b:391-392
D. ursus Mayr,1866:499-500; Emery, 1894:228, 1912:12; Kempf, 1972b:120 (Hypoclinea) (Mackay, 1993)

Discussion. Workers, females and males can be distinguished due tothe shiny, polished surface of the pronotum and gaster, and on the basis of color(golden yellow to ferrugineous red). This species is very closely related to quadridenticulatus, the sculpture onhead and shape of mesosoma are almost identical. In addition, there is littleor no appressed pubescence on the gaster, whereas the gaster of D. quadridenticulatus always has at least moderate appressed pubescence.It is also much lighter in color than the typical D. quadridenticulatus.
Distribution. Colombia and Venezuelasouth to Bolivia.May occur in Central America.
Biology. This speciesconstructs carton nests in trees at elevations below 1500 meters. One serieswas mixed with D. ferrugineous. Oneloose female was collected in Aug, 1962 (Perú) a second in July, 1922 (Brasil).
Dolichoderusandinus (Kempf)
(Figs) (Map )

Monacis andinaKempf, 1962:36-37, D, Peru: Pichita,Caluga

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]Males of the shattucki complex are unknown,use key with caution as the males of many species are unknown and those of manyspecies are very similar. From Mackay (1993).

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]The unknown males of D. rosenbergiand D.longicollis from Colombia, Ecuador and Perú may key to thiscouplet.

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]The unknown males of D. diboliusand D.intermedius would probably key here.


[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]





[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]


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الجوزاء الديك
عدد المساهمات : 829
تاريخ الميلاد : 04/06/1993
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الثور القرد
عدد المساهمات : 2095
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الدلو الخنزير
عدد المساهمات : 1712
تاريخ الميلاد : 12/02/1995
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