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 بحث حول النمل لاستكشاف الإنسان و تطوير الفضاء بالنجليزية

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ذكر
الحمل التِنِّين
عدد المساهمات : 1459
تاريخ الميلاد : 16/04/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 20/03/2010
العمر : 28
المزاج المزاج : رايق

مُساهمةموضوع: بحث حول النمل لاستكشاف الإنسان و تطوير الفضاء بالنجليزية    الثلاثاء نوفمبر 23, 2010 10:56 am

ANTS for the Human Exploration and
Development of Space[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط][ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]


Dr. Steven A. Curtis
Code 695, Planetary Magnetospheres Branch
Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, MD 20771
Phone: 301-286-9188;
Email: [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]

Walt Truszkowski
Code 588, Advanced Architectures and Automation
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, MD 20771
Phone: 301-286-8821;
Email: [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]


Dr. Michael L. Rilee
L-3 Communications, EER
Mailstop 931, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, MD 20771
Phone: 301-286-4743;
Email: [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]

Dr. Pamela E. Clark
L-3 Communications, EER
Mailstop 931, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, MD 20771
Phone: 301-286-7457;
Email: [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]


Abstract- The proposed Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm (ANTS) isan enabling architecture for human/robotic missions envisaged by NASA’s missionfor the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS). ANTS design principles draw on successesobserved in the realm of social insect colonies, which include task specializationand sociality. ANTS spacecraft act asindependent, autonomous agents for specific functions, while cooperating toachieve mission goals.

For example, the ProspectingANTS Mission (PAM) is a long-term mission concept for the 2020-2025 time frameinvolving individual spacecraft agents that are optimized for specific asteroidprospecting functions. The objective ofPAM is to characterize at least one thousand asteroids during each year ofoperations in the Main Belt. To achievethis objective, PAM spacecraft, individually and as a group, must achieve ahigh level of autonomy.

This high degree of autonomyopens the possibility of a new kind of interaction between humans and thesespacecraft, where human explorers and developers could interact with ANTSenabled resources by communicating high-level goals and data products. ThusANTS enables new kinds of missions in which both human and robotic agents worktogether to achieve mission goals.

In this paper we review anddiscuss the ANTS Architecture in the context of the HEDS mission.

Tableof Contents
1. Introduction
2. The ANTS Architecture
3. TheHEDS Strategic Plan
4. TheRole of ANTS and HEDS
5. Conclusion

1. Introduction
The mission of NASA's Office of HumanExploration and Development of Space (HEDS) is to expand the frontiers of spaceand knowledge by exploring, using, and enabling the development of space[1]. The aim is to discover and developthe resources of Space, transforming them into economic factors for the benefitof human enterprise. To this end, HEDShas established five goals for its Strategic Plan.
· Explore the Space Frontier
· Expand Scientific Knowledge
· Enable Humans to Live & WorkPermanently in Space
· Enable the Commercial Development of Space
· Share the Experience and Benefits ofDiscovery
The path into the future towards thesegoals goes through four epochs of steadily increasing potential and steadilyincreasing challenges. The range ofthese epochs is roughly as follows.
· Near-term: within 6 years, missiondurations of weeks and months
· Mid-term: within ten years, six month-longmissions
· Far-term: beyond ten years, 1 to 3 yearmissions (essentially permanent presence in space)
· Beyond: permanent human activity in space

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] 0-7803-7651-X/03/$17.00 ©2003 IEEE

[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] IEEEACPaper # 1248, Updated 10, December 2002


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[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]


الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
فجر الرحيل
المدير العــــام
المدير العــــام


ذكر
الحمل التِنِّين
عدد المساهمات : 1459
تاريخ الميلاد : 16/04/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 20/03/2010
العمر : 28
المزاج المزاج : رايق

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: بحث حول النمل لاستكشاف الإنسان و تطوير الفضاء بالنجليزية    الثلاثاء نوفمبر 23, 2010 10:58 am

The Near-term corresponds to missionconcepts, technologies, and science that are either operational or are soon tobe implemented. These are built usingtechnology for which flight heritage has already been demonstrated. Human space flight mainly involves theInternational Space Station or the Space Shuttle. The human presence in space is the main spanof the bridge through the Mid- and Far-terms, but this span is supported andheld together by an infrastructure of outposts, transportation andcommunication systems, many of which are robotic. Indeed, HEDS sees the distinction betweenhuman and robotic missions eventually vanishing, with missions in the Mid-termstarting to feature a high degree of integration of human and robotic systems.

Missionand System Architectures
A mission in which human and roboticelements are highly integrated, cooperative, and interactive cannot be handledwith the current, traditional paradigm for spacecraft operations. Currently, most spacecraft are, in the main,open-loop commanded by an Earth-based ground operations team with important,but limited, exceptions for certain health-and-safety related functions. The generation, review, transmission, anddiagnosis of results of command sequences are all part of an intricate andresource-demanding process that occasionally produces catastrophic results. Without advances in automation, the traditionalspacecraft operations staff cannot simply be transferred from the Earth tomanned-spacecraft comprising the human-element of advanced HEDS missions. Multiple-element missions must be no moredifficult or demanding to operate than individual spacecraft missions aretoday: the demands of controlling the robotic element must not be so great asto overwhelm the human resources of the well-integrated mission.

ANTS Background
The Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm (ANTS)is a mission/systems architecture for scalable, robust, highly distributedsystems [2]. There are three key aspectsof the architecture.

· Independent, specialized elements
· Multi-level intelligent, autonomousbehavior
· Organization via a Social Insect Analog

The aggressive use of nano-technologybrings the benefits of miniaturization to spacecraft systems, which includemass producibility and multi-function devices (e.g. system-on-a-chip). However, the foundation of the ANTS conceptis specialization, whereby individual elements of the system are optimized forparticular mission functions. Thisimproves the use of limited mission resources, but requires cooperation amongdifferent members of a swarm to achieve mission goals. Because space is a harsh environment in whichsystems suffer faults and failures, individual members of the swarm must berobust and intelligent enough to maintain their mission functions and roles inspite of such difficulties. Couplingintelligent behaviors as closely as possible to the systems that suffer the immediateconsequences of those behaviors simplifies the control of those systems. Individuals can interact at a higher semanticlevel across lower capacity, relatively unreliable communication links,confident that fundamental tasks are autonomically provided and that detailsare understood to be grounded in the mission context. From these specialized factors, importantmission functions are provided and the foundation for collective behaviors islaid. Utilizing these principles,colonies of social insects have become some of the most successful and adaptivecreatures on the planet [3].


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[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]


الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
فجر الرحيل
المدير العــــام
المدير العــــام


ذكر
الحمل التِنِّين
عدد المساهمات : 1459
تاريخ الميلاد : 16/04/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 20/03/2010
العمر : 28
المزاج المزاج : رايق

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: بحث حول النمل لاستكشاف الإنسان و تطوير الفضاء بالنجليزية    الثلاثاء نوفمبر 23, 2010 10:59 am

Plan of paper
Clearly the technologies required by HEDSgoals are quite advanced. Second, ANTSis a challenging paradigm that requires much research and development to reachits potential. The HEDS Strategic Plansurveys the path towards its goals and identifies capabilities that need to bedeveloped: in this paper we show thatthe ANTS Architecture is relevant at every step along the strategic pathleading to HEDS goals. In the followingwe present the ANTS Architecture in more detail. We then discuss the relevance of ANTS to HEDSobjectives.

1. The ANTS Architecture
As mentioned above, the ANTS Architectureis motivated by the success of social insects, in particular ants, over thepast 60 million years. The basis of thissuccess mainly lies in the specialization and division of labor of the membersof an insect colony. The tasks thatinsects must perform in order to live and propagate are the familiar ones ofgathering and preparing food, obtaining a suitable living environment (e.g.shelter, foraging area), finding and securing mates, and preparing the nextgeneration. If not members of a socialgroup, insects must be able to manage by themselves, i.e. as individualgeneralists. In general, such insects cannot evolve exceptional capabilities tothe great detriment of one or more of the myriad life-critical functions. A great strength may not offset even amarginal weakness.

However, in the context of colonies of socialinsects, specialists can evolve that are much more able to perform some of thetasks that support life. As long as theactivity of the different kinds of specialists covers the needs of the colonymembers, the group can perform the myriad of tasks more efficiently andsuccessfully than a similar number of individual generalists.

So within this discussion, current missiondesign and spacecraft architectures are best classified as generalists, atleast for science missions. Thisgeneralization is not exemplified in the functions common to all spacecraft:command and control, attitude, mechanical structures, power generation, and soon. Instead, the generalization isapparent in how the mission payload is considered and how this drives theoverall design of the mission and spacecraft.


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الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
فجر الرحيل
المدير العــــام
المدير العــــام


ذكر
الحمل التِنِّين
عدد المساهمات : 1459
تاريخ الميلاد : 16/04/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 20/03/2010
العمر : 28
المزاج المزاج : رايق

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: بحث حول النمل لاستكشاف الإنسان و تطوير الفضاء بالنجليزية    الثلاثاء نوفمبر 23, 2010 11:01 am

Figure 1. Optimalposition for X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) compared with actual NEAR geometry.


Figure 2. ANTSArchitecture allows optimal placement of specialized autonomous Workerelements. Control and data transfers inthe swarm use a dedicated network of Communications Workers.



Thegeneralization arises because current science mission and spacecraftarchitectures carry several science instruments. Even for the relatively favorable case wherethe instruments are focussed on related science goals, the operationalcharacteristics of the instruments may lead to unavoidable conflicts. In addition to conflicts with other scienceinstruments, it is common for the needs of the science instrumentation to be somewhatat odds with the more mundane health and safety concerns related to the veryfunctioning and survival of the spacecraft.


Consider the Near Earth Asteroid RendezvousMission: optimal orbits for its X-ray spectrometers pass through the linebetween the asteroid and the Sun (Figure 1) [4]. Such orbits provide opportunities to obtainthe greatest signal-to-noise ratio in these instruments. However, due to power concerns,communications, and related pointing constraints, NEAR rarely passed throughthis point, spending most of its time orbiting the asteroid over itsterminator, essentially at a right angle to optimal positioning for thespectrometers. Thus the NEAR orbit was acompromise arrived at by trying to accommodate within the mission's budget theconflicts and limitations of various spacecraft subsystems.




TheANTS Architecture is especially relevant when mission functions mightadvantageously be employed simultaneously at different positions (Figure2). For the current, single spacecraft,multi-instrument approach, the advantage of multiple positions may be lost inface of the expense of implementing multiple traditional spacecraft. Command,control, and autonomous operations are hampered by the complexities of thepayload operations compounded by the need to coordinate multi-spacecraftobservations to achieve mission goals. Yet to be viable mission candidates inthe future, multi-spacecraft missions must be no more expensive or difficult tooperate than single-spacecraft missions are today. The ANTS swarm of spacecraft draws on theexample of social insects to address these issues.


First, individual spacecraft providespecific mission functions to the swarm. In this way, the operations of individual spacecraft can be bothsimplified and optimized for their specific tasks. In the context of the NEAR example mentionedpreviously, a specialized Spectrometer Worker would seek the optimal subsolarpoint of an Asteroid while a nearby Communication Worker could receive andrelay the science data to spacecraft specializing in data archival or missionplanning and management.

Second, it is clear that the ANTSArchitecture is built on a foundation of multiple spacecraft. The ANTS Architecture presumes multipleindividual specialists are required to meet a full complement of mission requirements.As alluded to above, there may be several kinds or classes of spacecraft ofwhich Workers, Communicators, and Managers are three examples. Depending on the particular mission each ofthese classes might have a large number of representatives. This redundancy improves the reliability andperformance, e.g. coverage, of the overall system: individual nodes may fail, but a similarlycapable specialist should be relatively nearby. Note that this approach is quite different from some other so-calledswarm architectures that apply large numbers of essentially identical,unspecialized elements to solve a problem.

Third, a high degree of autonomy isrequired of the individual elements of the swarm. We envision a spacecraft bus that providesmost functions common to spacecraft: attitude control, power, communications,etc. This parallels the actual highdegree of autonomy individual insects have compared, say, to currentspacecraft. Existing spacecraft have alimited amount of autonomy to fall back on to protect against faults andfailures, but in the main, spacecraft are ground-commanded with their actionsheavily scripted. The low-levelautonomic maintenance of spacecraft health, safety, and basic functions is akey element of the ANTS Architecture.

Fourth, the degree of intelligence requiredby each element of the swarm is yet to be determined. However, the ANTS Architecture seeks tosimplify the problems to be solved by the on-board intelligence by positing specialized,optimized elements aided by a low-level autonomic spacecraft bus. This factors the problem so that AItechniques may be more effectively applied to higher level issues includingplanning, science data analysis, social interaction, as well as fault diagnosisand remediation.

Fifth, the ANTS Architecture allowsmultiple elements of the swarm to collaborate on certain tasks. The groups these form may be temporary and adhoc, for example Workers may form such a group to survey a newly discoverednearby asteroid. However, other groupswould be permanent components of the swarm, for example Communication Workersforming a communication backbone between groups of Workers and others. The way to build these behaviors into theswarm so that these behaviors evolve and adapt as the mission progresses is animportant research topic.

Though we have used examples of ANTS asapplied to asteroid exploration, the ANTS Architecture is more widelyapplicable. ANTS should be considered for missions or mission components that(1) require large-scale, possibly dynamic, spatial and temporal coverage orother mission functions, (2) involve adverse communication latencies andbandwidths, and (3) do not require immediate human presence and input. We have concentrated on ANTS as applied toscience missions where the main mission functions are the cooperative gatheringand filtering of data according to a swarm's mission goals. Other missions that may benefit from the ANTSapproach could include resource extraction, system construction andmaintenance, automated logistics and communications, and human mission support.

1. The HEDS Strategic Plan
With the ANTS architecture in mind, we turnto NASA's Enterprisefor the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS). Referring to the HEDS five strategic goalsmention above, the first two itemsconcern developing an understanding of the space environment. On this knowledge the skills and technologiesof the next two items will be built. Thefifth item bespeaks HEDS's intention that the rewards of the development ofSpace are brought broadly to the American people and the world, througheducation and research at first and eventually commerce.

These goals require the development of newsystems and new technologies that extend human capabilities and functions. Space is vast, and human presence isscarce. Therefore, one of the mostimportant set of tools to be developed, involve those tools that operatethemselves, even if in only a limited way. HEDS has identified the integration of human and robotic elements forsafe, effective, affordable exploration and other mission functions as a keydevelopment theme [5].

NASA has long been interested in autonomoussystems, chiefly for survivability and reductions in operations costs [6]. Most contemporary spacecraft autonomouslyseek safe-modes when suffering certain kinds of faults. Some mission operations have moved to"lights-out" operations in which operators are on call while thesystem functions autonomously after business hours. Deep Space 1 broughttraditional AI on board the spacecraft to experiment with autonomous scienceoperations [7]. The Low Energy NeutralAtom imager on board the IMAGE spacecraft has essentially no uploadrequirements because it autonomously reconfigures itself according to local radiationconditions [8]. Finally, a great deal ofresearch into autonomy and reliability has been pursued in the context of theInternational Space Station to ensure system and human health and safety.

Work on autonomous systems and subsystemshas been of great interest [e.g. 9]. Thedrivers for this work have been requirements for the maintenance of systemhealth and safety when time-scales for survival, communication, analysis, andcommand render human input infeasible or impossible. System autonomy has also been studied as away to reduce operations costs and as a way to make future, demandingmulti-spacecraft mission concepts practical. In the context of space systems with human crews, on-board labor isvastly scarcer than ground-based, therefore productivity gains obtained throughautomation and autonomy are correspondingly greater. An interesting tradeoff is the level ofinteraction between the human element and autonomous support systems: some systems are plug-and-play andessentially take care of themselves, while other systems have varying levels ofinteraction with humans and each other. Finally, work is just beginning on methods to automate scienceoperations that typically involve a great deal of input from a community ofscientist users [10]. Not all challengesof system automation are technical.

In the previous sections we have reviewedthe ANTS Architecture and HEDS goals and motivations highlighting the need forthe integration of robotic and human elements in mission and support frameworks. HEDS has an ongoing planning and road-mappingeffort that puts on record its current outlook on the future development ofspace. Previously we have reviewed theepochs into which the HEDS plan is divided. Another way to characterize these epochs is by the duration and locationof human stays in space: Near-term,week-to-months long visits to low-Earth orbit (LEO); Mid-term, months on theMoon and at nearby Lagrange Points; Far-term, months to years out to and ontoMars.

These epochs envision the opening of theSolar System as a frontier, starting from International Space Station (ISS) asan initial outpost and leading up to what amounts to an essentially permanenthuman presence beyond LEO. The missions of each epoch are to build ontechnology development and demonstrations of previous epochs. A central tenetof construction engineering is to use local materials wherever possible, andthe asteroids are local to interplanetary space once one is beyond the Earth'sgravitational well.


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[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]


الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
فجر الرحيل
المدير العــــام
المدير العــــام


ذكر
الحمل التِنِّين
عدد المساهمات : 1459
تاريخ الميلاد : 16/04/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 20/03/2010
العمر : 28
المزاج المزاج : رايق

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: بحث حول النمل لاستكشاف الإنسان و تطوير الفضاء بالنجليزية    الثلاثاء نوفمبر 23, 2010 11:02 am

1. The Role of ANTS in HEDS
The first exposition of the ANTSArchitecture was with the ANTS Prospecting Asteroid Mission (ANTS/PAM) which isto create a detailed resource catalog of the asteroids in the 2020s [2]. ANTS/PAM aims to obtain data duringencounters with a thousand or more asteroids a year. The catalog thus produced would advance ourunderstanding of the origins of the Solar System and planets and would enablesubsequent integrated human/robotic expeditions to develop theseresources. ANTS/PAM is very advanced andchallenging expression of the ANTS Architecture, a great deal of work needs tobe done before ANTS/PAM is feasible. Theroad towards ANTS/PAM through the Near-, Mid-, and Far-terms shows ampleopportunity for the development of ANTS-relevant technologies and applications.

TheNear-Term Foundation

In the Near-term, completing currentactivities while laying the groundwork for the future is the objective. HEDS, through activities such as the NASAExploration Team (NEXT) and Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC)among others supports research on in-space transportation and infrastructuresupporting access and shipping to and in space [5]. Building and maintaining effectiveEducational Outreach at all levels is also a goal. Working with ANTS concepts, eleven highschool and undergraduate college students have already developed animations andcomputer software relevant to the architecture.

During this time, we are developing ANTSArchitectural concepts, outlining the technical areas to be developed, andbeginning research. Initial models ofsome aspects of the ANTS Architecture have already been developed in software,with the aim towards developing large-scale computer simulations of sufficientfidelity to develop and test methods of autonomous control, social behaviors,and mission data processing in the context of important mission scenarios. We are addressing the fundamental, broadlyapplicable problems of spacecraft operations. As mentioned above, we seek to simplify the problem of autonomouscontrol by factoring spacecraft control into a low-level autonomic componentand a high-level more deliberative component. Though we are motivated by recent successes in developing autonomousrobots, for our rather narrow focus on free-flying spacecraft, we believeprogress can be made more quickly through high-fidelity simulation. A specific concept of interest during thisinitial resarch phase is ANTS as applied to Autonomous Resupply, particularlyfor spacecraft featuring low, continuous thrust propulsion. In this scenario, we exercise the ANTSArchitecture in its most basic form to ensure that our multi-level intelligentcontrol concepts are sound.

Within the ANTS Architecture, the level ofautonomous behavior required of individual spacecraft is quite high. Falling short of full autonomy for spacecraftmeans that human interaction is brought into the loop which increases expenseand decreases the potential productivity because of the scarcity of humanoperators. Therefore, the critical goalfor ANTS in the Near-term is the development of the fundamental low-levelautonomic and high-level autonomous control systems. Once these systems have been adequatelydeveloped in simulation, transition to real and space systems is required, andthere are many opportunities on the HEDS roadmap that could be supported withANTS.

TheMid-Term Demonstration

In the HEDS Mid-term, technologies andmethods for exploring Mars and developing near-Earth space are to be developedbeyond LEO, including the Moon and the nearby libration points. These plans provide an excellent backdrop forthe development of ANTS capabilities. Asstated before, ANTS spacecraft require an exceptional degree of autonomycompared to current spacecraft; this autonomy could be tested in the vicinityof the Moon. Missionscenarios could be motivated by Lunar-science or by the need to support humanexpeditions, e.g. through remote sensing for site survey and selection. The first steps at integrating human androbotic missions could be taken by exploring interactions and coordinationbetween the two kinds of systems. Theautonomy of ANTS spacecraft can be tested in the vicinity of the Moon, in areasonably forgiving setting.

One of the more interesting developments ofresearch into the future of space communications is the Interplanetary InternetProject [11]. This research revolvesaround the communication protocol architecture required to support networkedinterplanetary communications. As such,the requirements of the protocol are being driven by the characteristics ofcommunication links, essentially without regard to the physical systemsrequired to maintain these links. Thepossibility of a network of internets that enhances communication bandwidth isattractive, but maintaining network connectivity over wireless links forfree-flying spacecraft at distances of light-minutes from the Earth is aninteresting proposition. It is not clearthat one could effectively command the nodes of a remote network in the waythat we currently command many spacecraft, particularly in the case offaults. This points to a critical needof perhaps fairly low-level autonomy for the communication nodes that maintainsthe health of the network. Suchcommunication infrastructure is an important support component of the HEDSplans. It is also a requirement of theANTS/PAM mission: swarm cohesiveness and control information depends on thecommunication layer provided by the ANTS/PAM Communication Workers. Along these lines, one interesting ANTS/PAMdata downlink scenario would be for the ANTS/PAM Communicators to communicatewith Earth through a Mars-based communication node. Furthermore, the role that ANTS could play inthe design and implementation of interplanetary communications and navigationnetworks should be examined.


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الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
فجر الرحيل
المدير العــــام
المدير العــــام


ذكر
الحمل التِنِّين
عدد المساهمات : 1459
تاريخ الميلاد : 16/04/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 20/03/2010
العمر : 28
المزاج المزاج : رايق

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: بحث حول النمل لاستكشاف الإنسان و تطوير الفضاء بالنجليزية    الثلاثاء نوفمبر 23, 2010 11:04 am


The Far-Term Integration


In addition to technology development anddemonstration, human systems support, and infrastructure, science missions thatcould benefit from the ANTS Architecture will arise [12]. For example, in the time frame of the humanexpeditions to Mars, ANTS-based missions should be feasible. Mars has complicated, multi-scale surfacecharacteristics. The Mars ANTS ResourceSurvey (ANTS/MARS) is a mission concept that uses three different kinds ofinstrumentation on orbiting, formation-flying spacecraft to map water and upperatmospheric conditions on Mars. Workerspacecraft specializing in either magnetometry, Gamma-Ray/Neutron spectrometry,or radio frequency remote sensing coordinate their operations depending onwhether wide coverage or high-resolution is required. Other Workers could provide communication andnavigation aids. Studies of both waterand weather on Mars, are important for expeditions to the surface [13]. Multiple spacecraft specializing in the samekind of instrument can provide spacecraft-level redundancy for reliability aswell as adaptable spatial coverage. Forexample, electric field instruments for ionospheric and surface dielectricmeasurements require specialized aerodynamic "dipping" spacecraft.Spacecraft in widely spaced formations can cover more area, but as scienceopportunities develop, say as interesting surface or atmospheric featuresrequiring higher spatial resolution measurements are discerned, an autonomousformation could, within limits, adapt either through aerodynamic operations orby modifying their orbits.

ANTS/MARS could provide importantmeasurements of surface and atmospheric properties in support of humanexpeditions, while significantly advancing our understanding of the waterbudget and cycle of Mars. In addition,though with important Mars-specific adaptations, ANTS/MARS tests mostcomponents of the ANTS Architecture required by the ANTS/PAM mission to theasteroids.

1. Conclusion
The next twenty years promise to be anexciting time for the HEDS Enterprise. The HEDS Strategic Plan seeks to lay the scientific and technicalfoundations for the permanent extension of the human presence into Space. HEDS aims toward the development andimprovement of an infrastructure for supply, communications, and missionplanning to support human and robotic missions first to the Moon and librationpoints, then to Mars, the asteroids, and eventually throughout the SolarSystem. Human command and control willbe scarce in these far-flung systems of the future, and autonomous systemsbecome important for both basic function, reliability, and usability. The ANTS Architecture aims to severelyrestrict the complexity of these systems by providing low-level autonomicfunctions controlled by a higher-level AI: individual ANTS spacecraft are thenplugged into the swarm to which they provide their specialized and optimizedservices. In the Near-term, researchinto ANTS is mainly in simulation, but there is plenty of opportunity fordevelopment and demonstration in the Mid-term and full scale deployment in theFar-term. Thus swarms built on the ANTSArchitecture may provide logistical supply lines, communications networks, andscience coverage in support of the human exploration and development of space.

Acknowledgements

Support from NASA/GSFC IR&D, Code 588,Advanced Architectures and Automation Branch is acknowledged. Graphic models of ANTS by R. Watson.

References

[1] NASA Human Exploration and Developmentof Space Strategic Plan.
[2] Curtis, S., et al., “Autonomous NanoTechnology Swarm”, in The 51st International Astronautical Congress, October2000; “http://ants.gsfc.nasa.gov”.
[3] "social behavior in animals","http://search.eb.com/ebi /article?eu=119306", EncyclopediaBritannica; "ant", "http://search.eb.com/ebi/article?eu=294484",Britannica Student Encyclopedia, (online), December 2002.
[4] Santo, A., et al., "NEARSpacecraft and Instrumentation", J.Astronomical Sciences, Vol. 43, No. 4, 373-397, 1995.
[5] Revolutionary Aerospace SystemsConcepts "http:// rasc.larc.nasa.gov" & NASA Exploration Team inthe NASA/HEDS Advanced Systems "[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط] systems.nasa.gov/" and Advanced Programs "http://HEDSAdvPrograms.nasa.gov/" offices.
[6]Truszkowski, W., Hallock, H. "AgentTechnology from a NASA Perspective". CIA-99, Third International Workshopon Cooperative Information Agents, Springer Verlag, Uppsala, Sweden,31 July -- 2 August 1999.
[7] B. C. Williams and P. P. Nayak. "AModel-Based Approach to Reactive Self-Configuring Systems". Procs. Of AAAI-96, 971-978, Cambridge, Mass.,AAAI, 1996.
[8] Johnson, M. A., M. L. Rilee, and W. Truszkowski,“Using Model-Based Reasoning for Autonomous Instrument Operation”, in theProceedings of The 2001 IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, MT.
[9] M. A. Johnson, et al. "Nanosat Intelligent Power SystemDevelopment". Procs. of 2ndInternational Conference on Integrated Micro-Nanotechnology for SpaceApplications, E. Y. Robinson (ed.), v2 p475, 1999.


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عدد المساهمات : 1459
تاريخ الميلاد : 16/04/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 20/03/2010
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: بحث حول النمل لاستكشاف الإنسان و تطوير الفضاء بالنجليزية    الثلاثاء نوفمبر 23, 2010 11:04 am

[10]Curtis, S., et al., “Small satellite constellation autonomy via onboardsupercomputers and artificial intelligence”, in The 51st InternationalAstronautical Congress, October 2000. Curtis, S., et al., "Onboard Science Software Enabling Future SpaceScience and Space Weather Missions", in the Proceedings of the 2002 IEEEAerospace Conference, Big Sky, MT.
[11] Interplanetary Internet Website,"[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]".
[12] NRC, "New Frontiers in the Solar System: An IntegratedExploration Strategy", National Academies Press, Washington DC,2002.
[13] NRC, "Safe on Mars: Precursor Measurements Necessaryto Support Human Operations on the Martian Surface", National AcademiesPress, Washington DC, 2002.

Biography

Steven A. Curtis has been the Head of the Planetary MagnetospheresBranch in the Laboratory for Ex-traterrestrial Physics at Goddard Space Flight Centerfor the past decade. He was a Principle Investigator in NASA’s Space PhysicsTheory Program (Global Magnetospheric Simulations) and in NASA’s RemoteExploration and Experimentation Program (advanced spacecraft onboardcomputing). He is presently Project Scientist for the 4-5 spacecraftMagnetospheric Multi Scale in which he has played a leading role inconceptualizing the science and spacecraft design implementation. His researchinterests include the global and mesoscale structure of the magnetosphere andits simulation, atmosphere-magnetosphere interactions, and wave-particleinteractions in Geospace. He is particularly interested in the multiscaleclosure needed between theory and observations. He received his Ph.D., M.S., andB.S. in Physics from the University of Maryland.

Walt Truszkowski is currently the Senior Technologist in theAdvanced Architectures and Automation Branch at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. In that capacity he is responsible formanaging the agent technology research for the Branch. Currently work isunderway to establish an agent-based system for the ESA/NASA satellite SOHO. He also serves as the Lead of the InformationTechnology Research Group in the Branch. In that capacity, he is leading an effort to create a repository ofinformation on technologies of importance to researchers in the organization.He is also leading the research in the areas of human factors of websitedesign/use and the application of agents for the intelligent access andmanagement of web-based information.
He is a National Research Council(NRC) accredited Fellow participating in the Resident Researcher's Associate(RRA) program at the Goddard Space Flight Center.

Michael L. Rilee is a scientist with L-3 Communications supportingthe GSFC Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics and the Science ComputingBranch of the GSFC Earth and Space Science Computing Division. For NASA’s Remote Exploration andExperimentation project he has lead development of the Plasma MomentApplication and the Radio Astronomical Imager which are science data analysisapplications designed for space borne supercomputers. He is currentlyresearching a High Performance Computing System that may fly on MagnetosphericMulti Scale (launch 2007). At GSFC hehas been active in Nano-Satellite technology development and the application ofparallel computing to data analysis and astrophysical fluid simulation (PARAMESH).He received his Ph.D. and M.S. in Astrophysics (Plasma Physics) from Cornell University,and his B.A. in Astrophysics and Mathematics from the Universityof Virginia in Charlottesville, VA.

Pamela E. Clark is a scientist with L-3 Communications supportingthe GSFC Laboratory for Extraterestrial Physics. She is currently active with theMagnetospheric Multi-Scale mission and plays a central role in the developmentof the ANTS mission concepts. She has been involved with numerous flightprojects including the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous, Pioneer Venus, MarsObserver, Magellan, and Mercury Messenger. In her work she has sought to correlate remote sensing measurements withsample and in-situ measurements to better understand the origin and evolutionof terrains across the Solar System. Shereceived her Ph.D. from the University of Maryland.



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مشكوووووووووووووووووور
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وجعلها في ميزان حسناتك



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